Have you ever wondered at how some animals, like kangaroo rats, can survive in hot or dry places? New research from our lab suggests that some bees can be quite good at tolerating heating up or drying out, but not both at the same time.
In a recent paper published in Scientific Reports (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-38338-0), PhD student Justin Burdine and Dr. Kevin McCluney found that honeybees are very sensitive to drying out, but can handle the heat, while striped sweat bees can tolerate dehydration, but can’t take the heat. Thus, different aspects of climate change, like changes in precipitation or temperature, are expected to have different effects on different species.
Honeybees drinking from a fountain
These findings are important for people living in cities. Pavement makes eastern US cities hotter and sometimes drier than surrounding undeveloped areas. Think about walking through a parking lot on a hot day. You can feel the heat and that causes sweating and thus loss of water. We found that urban honey bees in Toledo, OH were drier than their rural counterparts, being very close to their dehydration limits. Urban sweat bees on the other hand, were closer to overheating, although it is important to point out that they were not very close to these temperature limits in Toledo, OH. In this city in a cool climate, urban heat may actually help them.
These findings have important implications for urban farmers and gardeners. They suggest that to maximize pollination from multiple species of pollinators, it may be important to provide water or dilute nectar sources and shade and sun, allowing different bees, with different physiology, to achieve the best body temperature and hydration. This may be even more important as cities face increased temperatures and changes in precipitation associated with climate change.
We’ve been so busy doing science, we forgot to update our lab web page! But we have been posting over on our Facebook page.
Here are some recent updates…
First, we received funding from the Lake Erie Protection Fund to support the MS work of Rachel Paull, investigating how agricultural ditch restoration influences nutrient cycling via plants and animals! She started sampling last week. We are also collaborating with the Hood Lab at Ohio State and are lucky to have some great undergraduate research assistants helping with the work!
Second, we received an internal grant supporting research by MS student Missy Seidel, on climatic effects on pollinator food webs. And then, a short time later, she received a Sigma Xi research grant as well! She is rapidly preparing for an ambitious field experiment! And we also have an undergraduate CURS student doing related work!
Third, PhD student Melanie McLaughlin Marshall and PI Kevin McCluney presented two talks each at the Society for Freshwater Science annual meeting. MS student John Woloschuk also presented a poster at the meeting. All were well received.
Fourth, MS student John Woloschuk is gearing up for his work investigating how predators consuming emergent insects along agricultural ditches may influence crop pests.
Last but not least, PhD students Justin Burdine and Melanie Marshall have been rapidly writing papers with some exciting results!
Congratulations to Missy Seidel for being awarded a Sigma Xi research grant for her work on climatic effects on pollinator food webs!!
April 19th, 2018
Congratulations to PhD students Melanie Marshall and Justin Burdine on their BGSU Biology Oman awards!!
Congratulations to Jamie Becker on her thesis defense!
Jamie gave an excellent presentation on her work showing how climate influences animal water and nutrient demand across landscapes influenced by urbanization.
The lab has published several papers this year, related to either animal water content and ecology, urbanization, or both.
Kevin McCluney, Justin Burdine, and Steve Frank published a paper showing that mean arthropod water content in Raleigh, NC, Phoenix, AZ, and Orlando, FL becomes more similar with increasing urbanization. Highly urban Raleigh arthropods are drier, while highly urban Phoenix and Orlando arthropods are wetter. Other research has documented how changes in arthropod water content can influence trophic interactions and food web dynamics. Thus our results suggest that urbanization can change food webs by altering arthropod water balance (in vs out).
Undergraduate alumni Edward Lagucki, advised by PhD student Justin Burdine, and Kevin McCluney published a paper showing that gardens and parks in more urban settings of Toledo have fewer flying insects, including groups of insects that include pollinators like bees, and predators important for controlling pests. Higher soil moisture seems to help alleviate some of these declines. Although more research is needed to better identify particular species that are highly affected and confirm mechanisms, this research contributes to growing evidence that urbanization can alter food webs in ways that influence humans.
Kevin McCluney published a sole-authored opinion paper, laying out the evidence that arthropods may be widely water-limited and exploring how variation in animal water balance (in vs out) might influence food webs. Email Dr. McCluney if you would like a copy of this paper (not open access).
The McCluney lab participates in Imagination Station’s “Girl Power!” event which is designed to support women in science. Jamie Becker demonstrates the Urban Heat Island effect, where areas with large amounts of impervious surface are generally hotter and drier than areas with vegetation.
“The Journal,” a talk show on WBGU-TV, the local PBS station, recently interviewed Dr. McCluney (along with collaborator Dr. Bob Midden) about the lab’s research on phosphorous sources and sinks in the watersheds leading to Lake Erie. Here’s a link to the interview: http://video.wbgu.org/video/2365840558/
Of course, there are many people that are contributing to research discussed by Dr. McCluney and Dr. Midden, including collaborators Laura Johnson at Heidelberg University, Mark Williams and Kevin King at the USDA, and PhD student Melanie Marshall and MS student Gabby Metzner, within the McCluney lab. Many other scientists within and outside of OH are also contributing important information about the causes of Lake Erie’s algal blooms.
Dr. McCluney recently published a paper in Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Science that extends his previous work and tests if animal water balance can drive top-down effects in open-air food webs [download post-print here or email Dr. McCluney for a free copy of the published manuscript]. This research highlights the importance of moisture availability in altering the effect of predators on prey, with cascading effects on vegetation. The work was conducted by Dr. McCluney as a post-doc at Arizona State University and subsequently revised and published while at BGSU. Ongoing research by Dr. McCluney and by PhD student Jamie Becker is expanding on this work.
Justin Burdine received notification that he will be awarded an Annie’s Homegrown Sustainable Agriculture Scholarship for his work on the ecology of bees in urban gardens! Congrats Justin!
In the spring of 2016 our first two honors students presented their theses and graduated! Congrats and good luck as they move on to graduate programs!
In the spring of 2016 we received additional funding from the Ohio Department of Higher Education to expand our ongoing research on Phosphorus sources to Lake Erie (note, P loading has been implicated in the recent toxic algal blooms). With this new research we will examine the age of the P running off agricultural fields in addition to expanding our efforts to trace sources of P to Lake Erie. Both of these projects employ stable isotopes of phosphate. These subprojects are part of a larger effort at understanding P sources to Lake Erie led by Laura Johnson at Heidelberg University and in collaboration with Bob Midden (BGSU), Paula Mouser (OSU), Jay Martin (OSU), and Rem Confesor (Heidelberg). Graduate students Melanie Marshall and Gabby Metzner are working on this project and are also connecting in their own research by examining effects of stream/ditch restoration efforts and trace chemicals on fluxes of P through linked aquatic-terrestrial food webs.
We were so busy doing research and teaching that we got a little behind with our posts. Here are a few key news items from the past year!
Undergraduate Nadya Mirochnitchenko receives the CURS Glass award for her poster presentation on the spatial and temporal variation in concentrations of trace chemicals and macroinvertebrates in the Portage River watershed in NW Ohio. The hand-blown glass award was presented by university president Mary Ellen Mazey.
Nadya Mirochnitchenko and Haley Ingram, undergraduate honors students working in the McCluney Lab, have both received summer research scholarships from the BGSU Center for Undergraduate Research and Scholarship.
Nadya Mirochnitchenko received funding to study the effects of washed-up algal blooms of varying toxicity on lakeshore food webs along Lake Erie.
Haley Ingram received funding to examine the relationship between riverine ecosystem condition (e.g. water quality) and human perception of those conditions within different socioeconomic groups, as well as the effects of exposing study participants to different types of written statements about local ecosystem condition.
The lab has been awarded its first sizable grant! As part of a collaborative effort with researchers from several other universities, we will be helping to determine sources of phosphorous involved in the recent occurrence of toxic algal blooms in Lake Erie (which made international headlines last summer by shutting down Toledo’s water supply). Specifically, we will be using stable isotopes of oxygen, within phosphate molecules, to trace sources of phosphate from algal blooms, to lake sediments or several key watersheds, up into specific sub-watersheds, and even to specific sources like particular waste-water treatment plants or farms that may be contributing. Moreover, we will determine hotspots of biological processing and removal of P from these watersheds. The grant is funded by the Ohio Board of Regents. In addition to money for sample processing, this means more funds for undergraduate and graduate student research assistantships!
Posted in Science
Tagged Algal, Algal Bloom, Farm, Isotope, Lake, Lake Erie, Microcystis, Phosphate, Phosphorous, Toledo, Water Quality
A new co-authored paper on how water availability influences riparian food webs (crickets, spiders, lizards) in open-air experimental plots has been published in the newest issue of Frontiers.
Email me if you need a copy