Brief Timeline of Cuban history
Cuba Siglo XIX
Guerras contra España e Intervención Norteamericana
1868-78 First war of Cuban independence. Also known as the Ten Years’ War.
1868 October 10 , Revolutionaries under the leadership of Carlos Manuel de Céspedes proclaims Cuban independence.
1878 February 8, Pact of Zanjón ends Ten Years’ War and ends uprising.
1879 August, A second uprising (“The Little War“), engineered by Antonio Maceo and Calixto García, begins but is quelled by superior Spanish forces in autumn 1880.
1886 Slavery abolished.
1898 June 6–10th Invasion of Guantánamo Bay American and Cuban forces invade the strategically and commercially important area of Guantanamo Bay during the Spanish-American war.
1898 December 10, Treaty of Peace in Paris ends the Spanish-American War by which Spain relinquished sovereignty over Cuba.
1899 January 1, The Spanish colonial government withdraw and the last captain General Alfonso Jimenez Castellano hands over power to the North American Military Governor, General John Ruller Brooke.
1899 December 23 Leonard Wood becomes US Provisional Governor of Cuba.
Cuba Siglo XX
Época Republicana y Revoluciones
1901 March 2, Platt Amendment passed in the U.S. stipulating the conditions for the withdrawal of United States troops, assuring U.S. control over Cuban affairs.
1902 May 20 The Cuban republic is instituted under the presidency of Tomás Estrada Palma.
1912 Separatist Black revolt is defeated in bloody campaign
1928 January 10 Julio Antonio Mella a founder of Stalinist Communist Party in Cuba is murdered in Mexico.
1933 August 12 Gerardo Machado, despite last minute support from the Communist Party, is forced to leave Cuba, by ABC and Antonio Guiteras Holmes resistance actions, a general strike, pressure from senior officers of Cuban Armed Forces and U.S. Ambassador Sumner Welles. Communist activity high and extends through rest of summer with establishment of ephemeral Soviets in eastern provinces.
1933 September 4 “Sergeants’ Revolt” organized by a group including Fulgencio Batista topples provisional government. (Golpe de estado militar)
1938 September Communist party legalized again.
1943 Soviet embassy opened in Havana.
1951 August 15 Eduardo Chibás, leader of the Ortodoxo party and mentor of Fidel Castro commits suicide on live radio.
1952 March Former president Batista, supported by the army, seizes power. (Golpe de estado militar)
1953 July 26 Some 160 revolutionaries under the command of Fidel Castro launch an attack on the Moncada barracks in Santiago de Cuba.
1953 October 16 Fidel Castro makes “History Will Absolve Me” (próxima clase) speech in his own defense against the charges brought on him after the attack on the Moncada Barracks. – 1955 May Fidel and surviving members of his movement are released from prison under an amnesty from Batista.
1954 September Che Guevara arrives in Mexico City.
1954 November Batista dissolves parliament and is elected constitutional president without opposition.
1955 June Brothers Fidel and Raúl Castro are introduced to Che Guevara in Mexico City.
1956 November 25 Fidel Castro, with some 80 insurgents including Raúl Castro, Che Guevara and Camilo Cienfuegos, executes informers and sets sail from Mexico for Cuba on the yacht Granma.
1956 December 2 Granma lands in Oriente Province.
1957 January 17, Castro’s guerrillas score their first success by sacking an army outpost on the south coast, and started gaining followers in both Cuba and abroad.
1957 March 13, University students mount attack on the Presidential Palace in Havana. Batista forewarned. Attackers mostly killed, others flee and are betrayed
1957 May 28 1957, Castro’s 26 July movement heavily reinforced by Frank Pais Militia overwhelm an army post in El Uvero.
1959 January 1 President Batista resigns and flees the country. Fidel Castro’s column enters Santiago de Cuba. Raul Castro starts mass executions of captured military. Diverse urban rebels, mainly Directorio, seize Havana
1959 January 5 Manuel Urrutia named President of Cuba.
1959 February 16 Fidel Castro becomes Premier of Cuba.
1959 May 17 The Cuban government enacts the Agrarian Reform Law which limits land 1,000 acres (4.0 km2) ranches or less if other agricultural land, no payment is made.
1959 July 17 Osvaldo Dorticós Torrado becomes President of Cuba, replacing Manuel Urrutia forced to resign by Fidel Castro. Dorticós serves until 2 December 1976
1960 October 31, nationalization of all U.S. property is completed.
1960 December 26, Operation Peter Pan (Operación Pedro Pan) begins, an operation transporting 14,000 children of parents opposed to the new government. The scheme continues until U.S. airports are closed to Cuban flights during 1962.
1961 January 1, Cuban government initiate national literacy campaign.
961 April 15, Bay of Pigs invasión.
1961 US Trade embargo on Cuba.
1961 October Fidel Castro’s ‘Palabras a los intelectuales’ (martes 6 de abril).